Author: Margaret J. Ott

It can be highly distressing to watch your grandparents, parents, and loved ones decline due to the effects of old age. These individuals are so special to us for shaping us into the people we are now. They were the ones that helped us the most despite seeing us at our lowest. They are the ones in need of our assistance now. This is why we always try to ensure the safety of our elderly parents at home.

What is the need for a professional caregiver?

In old age, physical activities become challenging for an individual. Older people have an increased risk of bone fractures is directly related to their advanced age. Their frail bones may make it more dangerous to move around without assistance.

Here appears the need for professional caregiver services. A professional home care service provider ensures the safety of an older person in their own home to raise awareness of prevalent in-home hazards. It’s also necessary to be aware of common danger spots in the house that the elderly may encounter.

Families that wish to care for their older loved ones but are too preoccupied with their lives to devote time to caring for their aging relatives may benefit significantly from in-home caregiver services.

Benefits of In-home Care services:

Here are some of the primary arguments for why older adults require in-home caregiver services:

·        To comfort the person who has dementia:

Seeing your loving parents’ mental health decline is also very difficult. Most families fail to adequately care for an elderly relative because they lack the knowledge and expertise necessary to deal with the difficulties associated with aging. Qualified in-home caregivers can significantly help those living with dementia since they are familiar with the disease and know how to handle them properly.

·        To facilitate sanitation and personal hygiene:

It’s not easy to practice good hygiene when a person is bedridden or can’t get around freely. Support from trained caregivers in getting to and from the bathroom and maintaining personal hygiene is crucial in preventing the spread of infection. If necessary, caregivers assist with changing adult diapers. Because family members may not have the time to devote to such chores on their own, this is a huge help. Also, a caregiver can help you in proper grooming sometimes like a beard or hair cut for old men and women at home.

·        To avoid accidents and injuries:

Older adults sometimes have trouble keeping their balance and have diminished physical capabilities, which can leave them prone to falls and injury while going about their daily lives. Those already weak or bedridden are more vulnerable to bodily harm if they make even the slightest movements, such as getting out of bed. Older people and their families often find considerable comfort in having in-home caregivers. In-home caregivers do everything in their power to ensure the well-being of their elderly charge, from stocking their homes with all the necessities to helping them safely move from one room to another.

·        To aid in the healing process:

Many seniors prefer to recover at home rather than in a hospital after having surgery or getting sick or injured. Having skilled help at home during recovery can reduce stress and facilitate healing. Seniors benefit greatly from the efficiency and effectiveness of recovery care caregivers. Professional caregivers provide the caring, compassionate emotional support essential to speeding the sick person’s rehabilitation.

·        Increased portability:

Smooth mobility can be challenging for most seniors due to joint pain, age-related physical decline, arthritis, and weak muscles. Due to poor balance and muscular and joint pain, they may have trouble moving around the house and become afraid to do so. Your elderly parents will benefit greatly from having a caregiver to assist them with their daily physical duties at home.

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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person’s behaviour, communication, and social interaction. Over the years, there have been several misconceptions about autism that have led to stigma and discrimination against people with autism. It’s time to dismantle these misconceptions and understand autism for what it truly is.

In this blog post, we’ll be looking at some of the common misconceptions about autism and debunking them with facts.

Autism is a disease

Many people believe that autism is a disease that needs to be cured – this is far from the truth. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a part of a person’s identity. It’s not something that needs to be fixed or cured. People with autism just have a different way of seeing the world.

People with autism don’t have emotions

This couldn’t be further from the truth. People with autism do have emotions, but they might express them differently. For example, they may not make eye contact or use facial expressions the same way that neurotypical people do. This doesn’t mean they don’t feel emotions like joy, sadness, or anger.

Autism is more common in boys

This is a common misconception, and it’s simply not true. While boys are diagnosed with autism more often than girls, it’s not because more boys have autism – it’s because girls are often not diagnosed until later in life, or their symptoms are subtler than those of boys.

All people with autism are the same

There is a wide range of autism, and no two people with autism are the same. The term “autism spectrum” is used to describe the range of characteristics and symptoms that people with autism have. Some people may experience sensory overload or have difficulty with verbal communication, while others might struggle with social interactions or have repetitive behaviours.

Autistic toys only help people with autism

While toys that are specifically designed for people with autism can be helpful, they are not exclusive to people with autism. Many neurotypical people also benefit from sensory toys and toys that stimulate the senses. A specifically designed autistic toy can be a great way to reduce stress and anxiety for people of all ages.

In conclusion, it’s important to challenge the misconceptions about autism and educate ourselves on the facts

We hope that this blog post has helped in breaking down some of the common misconceptions about autism and helped you better understand autism.

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Montessori and Waldorf are two popular educational approaches that prioritize the individual child’s unique learning style and abilities. While both methods are child-centered and encourage creativity and independence, they differ in several ways. Understanding these differences can help parents decide which educational approach best suits their child’s needs and learning style. The article will explore the main differences between Montessori and Waldorf education.

1.   Learning Style

One of the main differences between Montessori and Waldorf education is their approach to learning style. Montessori education emphasizes hands-on, experiential learning, where children work independently with carefully designed materials that promote exploration and discovery. In contrast, Waldorf education focuses on imaginative and artistic expression, where children use creative play, storytelling, and artistic activities to engage with the curriculum.

While both approaches encourage a child’s natural curiosity and creativity, the methods used to facilitate learning differ significantly, with Montessori being more structured and concrete and Waldorf being more imaginative and abstract. However, both models utilize educational toys for kids to promote hands-on learning and exploration.

2.   Education Philosophy

Montessori and Waldorf’s education also differ in their overall philosophy. Montessori education emphasizes self-directed learning and individualized instruction, where children are encouraged to follow their interests and abilities at their own pace. On the other hand, Waldorf education emphasizes holistic development and interconnectedness in three ways- to address each child’s physical, emotional, and intellectual aspects.

While both approaches prioritize the individual child’s needs and abilities, Montessori education focuses more on academic achievement. In contrast, Waldorf education focuses more on fostering community and social responsibility. They say child play is work!

3.   Classroom Design

Montessori and Waldorf’s education also differ in their approach to classroom design. Montessori classrooms take a design that’s organized and structured, with specific learning materials, and the system encourages children to work independently. The classrooms are typically bright and spacious, with child-sized furniture and plenty of natural light.

In contrast, Waldorf classrooms are more homely, warm, and inviting, with soft lighting, natural materials, and warm colors. The classroom environment takes a design that encourages imaginative play, with plenty of open space and natural materials for children to explore. Overall, the Montessori classroom is more structured and focused on individual learning, while the Waldorf classroom is more homely, relaxed, and focused on imaginative play.

4.   Approach to Discipline

Montessori and Waldorf’s education also differ in their approach to discipline. Montessori education emphasizes self-discipline, with teachers providing guidance and support for children to develop self-control and respect for others. Children in Montessori schools are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions and to work collaboratively with their peers.

In contrast, discipline in Waldorf schools is based on natural consequences and conflict resolution, focusing on empathy and understanding rather than punishment. However, both approaches emphasize positive discipline and the development of social and emotional skills.

5.   The Curriculum

The curriculum in Montessori schools structure is around a set of learning materials that allow children to explore and learn at their own pace. These materials help to promote the development of practical skills and academic concepts such as math, language, and science.

The curriculum in Waldorf schools is more holistic, emphasizing creativity, imagination, and artistic expression through various activities such as music, drama, and visual arts. In addition, Waldorf schools often incorporate practical skills such as gardening, cooking, and woodworking into their curriculum. Both approaches prioritize the development of social skills, emotional intelligence, self-awareness, and academic knowledge.


Montessori and Waldorf are two distinct educational philosophies that differ in their focus, approach, and methodology. Montessori emphasizes individualized learning, practical skills, and structured play, while Waldorf emphasizes creativity, imagination, and free play to support the whole child’s development. Both approaches have strengths and weaknesses, and parents and educators should choose the one that best suits their child’s needs. Ultimately, both systems aim to provide a nurturing and supportive environment for children to learn, grow, and develop to their full potential.

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Bedwetting may not be an issue until a kid is over 5 years old. It can be uncomfortable and embarrassing for children, especially since it is not often discussed. A child may feel like something is wrong with them, especially if they continue wetting the bed when they are older. So, how can a parent help their child stop wetting the bed?

Most children outgrow bedwetting naturally. However, it is crucial for you are a parent to know what causes the issue so you can know where to begin.

Causes of Bedwetting

There are different reasons why children wet their beds.

  • Immature bladder
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Constipation
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Family history of bedwetting
  • ADHD

If the bedwetting is new, it could mean an underlying health issue. It can be an excellent idea for a child to have an overactive bladder assessment for severe cases to help remedy the problem. A pediatrician can help assess the issue and develop possible causes and solutions.

How Can You Stop Your Child from Bedwetting?

One thing you must never do is shame or blame your child for wetting the bed. Instead, please encourage them to try their best and work on remedies together. Here are several solutions to stop bedwetting.

  1. Manage the Intake of Fluids during the Day

The timing of fluid intake is essential when stopping bedwetting. While the child may be used to drinking a glass of water or milk before bedtime, it plays a major role in bedwetting. Therefore, limiting or avoiding fluid intake hours is advisable before going to bed. It eliminates accidents and ensures the kid does not have to wake up severally for bathroom calls. Remind them to go to the bathroom before sleeping and encourage taking more fluids in the morning and afternoon. It is also a good idea to eliminate triggers like chocolate, snacks, and desserts at night.

  1. Consider Bladder Training

Another way of stopping bedwetting is bladder training. However, this technique requires time and a lot of patience. It is a process where the child goes to the bathroom at a specific time during the night. Keeping it consistent can help control the bladder. Therefore, you must wake the child up once or twice during the night to go to the bathroom.

  1. Consider a Bedwetting Alarm

If bladder training does not work after some time, you can consider a bedwetting alarm. The alarm is designed to detect when the child is about to urinate and wakes them up before the accident happens. If the kid starts to urinate, the alarm goes off and wakes the kid to go to the bathroom. The alarm can work well, especially if your kid is a deep sleeper.

  1. Don’t Punish Your Child

As much as you might be frustrated by the issue, never punish your child for bedwetting. Being angry at your child can worsen because of the stress and anxiety you expose them to.

Final Thoughts!

For most parents, bedwetting is a nuisance and not a problem. It can be frustrating, not to mention the effort you need to keep the child’s room and bed clean. The above remedies can help stop the issue. However, consider talking to your doctor if you think it is an issue, especially if your child is older.

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French bulldogs are a popular breed of dogs that are loved by many due to their adorable appearance and charming personalities. One of the most sought-after color variations is the French bulldog blue and tan.

These puppies are known for their stunning coat colors, which feature a blue base with tan points on their face, legs, and chest.  French bulldog blue and tan puppies are born with a blue coat and tan points that become more distinct as they grow older. The blue color is a result of a recessive dilution gene, while the tan points are caused by the presence of the agouti gene. This unique coloration makes them stand out from other French bulldogs and has contributed to their increasing popularity.

In addition to their striking appearance, French bulldog blue and tan puppies are known for their playful and affectionate personalities. They are social dogs and thrive on attention and love from their owners. They are known to be loyal and devoted pets and will quickly become a beloved member of any family.

If you are considering adopting a French bulldog blue and tan puppy, it is essential to find a reputable breeder. French bulldogs are prone to certain health issues such as breathing problems and hip dysplasia, so it is crucial to choose a breeder who conducts health screenings on their breeding dogs. This ensures that your puppy will be healthy and happy throughout their life.

Once you bring your French bulldog blue and tan puppy home, be prepared to give them lots of love and attention. They love to play and are always eager to learn new tricks and commands. They also enjoy snuggling up with their owners and make excellent lap dogs.

In conclusion, French bulldog blue and tan puppies are a unique and charming addition to any household. Their stunning coat colors and affectionate personalities make them an excellent choice for families and individuals looking for a loyal and loving companion. Be sure to do your research and find a reputable breeder to ensure that your puppy is healthy and happy for years to come.

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There are oral conditions that may demand surgery. Irrespective of the surgery, you must ensure you are cautious with the healing process to avoid worsening the situation. When going for surgery, you need to ensure you are treated by a reputable and experienced dentist, such as dentist golf course road Gurgaon for better results. When the surgery is done poorly, you will not heal; instead, might develop wounds and other severe conditions.

What you do to take care of your mouth can affect how much pain you can experience and long. If you are out of surgery and wondering what steps to take, don’t worry and keep reading. This article will explore tips to recover quickly after oral surgery.

What is Oral Surgery?

Oral surgery is a broad term for any operation performed on your jaw or facial structures surrounding your oral, teeth, and gums. The procedure includes dental bone grafts, corrective jaw surgery, periodontal grafts, and teeth extractions. One can undergo oral surgery for different reasons, including badly broken teeth, gum diseases, oral cancer, extensive tooth decay, and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).

Tips for a Quick Recovery after Surgery

There are different strategies you need to consider for better and fast results and recovery from the surgery. Below are some of the steps you need to take.

  1. Eat Soft Food

No matter the craving, you might have to eat hard food and avoid them. This is because such foods will make you strain your jaws which can lead to bleeding. Consider looking for soft food that is less spicy. You need to avoid eating or drinking very hot items.

  1. Take Enough Rest

The mouth surgery is like any other major surgery. You need to rest well for the next 24 hours and avoid all physical activity that will require you to strain. Resting give your body time to heal and recreate all the damaged cells.

  1. Protect the Area of Surgery

After the surgery, please don’t rush to check the area or disturb it. This is because disrupting it can prevent clotting instead, leading to bleeding that might require another surgery. That is why you must stay calm after the surgery until your dentist confirms it’s safe to check. Moreso, reduce your consumption of beverages and food, as this can alter the healing. You should also limit talking and avoid spitting to avoid dislodging the blood clot.

  1. Keep Yourself Hydrated

During the healing period after surgery, you must drink lots of water. Staying hydrated helps your skin grow. However, you must avoid caffeinated and carbonated beverages for at least 24 hours after surgery.

  1. Opt for Painkillers

After the surgery, always consult your dentist on what painkillers you can use and those you cannot. Further, you need to inform the dentist about your medical history to help them know the type of counter painkillers that will suit your health condition. The dentist can recommend you take over-the-counter, depending on the severity of the issue.

Final Words!

The above steps are crucial to ensure quick recovery after surgery. Always look for an experienced dentist who can be available in an emergency.

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If you are looking for an easy way to bake your favorite treats, consider having multiple cookie sheets in your kitchen. Having more than one baking sheet in your kitchen can help you bake quicker, easier and with less cleanup.

Aluminum Cookie Sheets vs. Steel Cookie Sheets

An Aluminum Cookie Sheet has many advantages. They are cheaper than steel, durable, and can be lined with a baking mat for easier cleanup. However, they may not conduct heat evenly and could taste metallic.

When choosing a baking sheet, remember to select a pan that best suits the purpose of your recipe. Choosing a heavy-duty aluminum sheet to cook a thin slice of pizza is no use. A lighter-colored pan might be a better option.

There are four types of sheets: insulated, non-insulated, steel, and aluminum. If you’re looking for a durable pan, look for one made of 18-gauge aluminum. The pan can withstand high temperatures without warping.

If you’re looking for a more stylish option, consider a ceramic-surface cookie sheet. The textured surface promotes even baking. This type of pan also comes in fun colors.

Another type of baking sheet is a rimmed pan, also known as a jelly-roll pan. These are an excellent choice for tossing sides like Brussels sprouts.


The chemicals PTFE and PFOA are two common ingredients in baking sheets and other types of non-stick cookware. However, recent reports suggest that these two ingredients may be linked to cancer.

The two compounds were used in producing non-stick cookware until 2013 when they were phased out. Teflon has since been manufactured without PFOA. Although a small amount of PFOA is still found in cookware that is not PFOA-free, this is not a significant concern.

PTFE, also known as polytetrafluoroethylene, is a fluoropolymer plastic compound with a melting point of 600 degrees Fahrenheit. It is widely used for industrial manufacturing and surgical applications.

However, it is now known that the coating on PTFE can cause cancer. In lab tests, the chemical is a probable link to kidney and testicular cancer. There have also been reports that it can contribute to various other diseases.

PFOA is an artificial synthetic substance. It was first discovered in the 1930s. It is also used in manufacturing stain-resistant fabrics, carpets and cookware.

Non-Stick Liners

Non-stick cookie sheet liners may not be the easiest thing in the world to clean, but they are worth the effort. Their non-stick coatings are great for browning cookies or pancakes without resorting to a spatula. They are also handy for saving time and a few ounces of flour.

There are several types of non-stick cookie sheets to choose from. Aluminum, steel and even plastic are all viable choices. However, if you’re looking for the best baking sheet for your money, you’ll have to consider your specific needs before buying anything.

To get the most out of your new cookie sheet, you’ll need to find the right non-stick lining and the best way to care for it. Using it sparingly, you can get a lot of mileage out of a non-stick lining. Using aluminum or metal spatulas to remove cookies can damage them, so avoiding these tools altogether is best. A silicone lining can be a great way to reduce cleanup time.

Rimmed Baking Sheets are more practical than unrimmed baking sheets.

Rimmed baking sheets are a great multipurpose tool for your kitchen. They can roast meat, make cookies, and even make baking pizzas. You can also use them to drain fried foods. And because they are rimmed, they are spill-proof.

While you can use unrimmed baking sheets for cookies, most home cooks prefer rimmed ones. The reason is that they are easier to move food around. Besides, they have rolled edges to keep the contents inside. These edges prevent hot air from circulating the pan and ensure an even bake.

Another reason rimmed baking sheets are better is that they have more available baking space. This is especially important if you are baking cookies. With an unrimmed baking sheet, you may find that some of the cookie dough sticks to the edge.

Another advantage of a rimmed baking sheet is its ability to circulate heat. If you have a broiler, place your rimmed baking sheet in the oven to get the food to broil. It is also ideal for roasting vegetables.

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Even though stretch marks are unsightly scars, they can be a sign of strength, not only of a woman’s physical strength but of her mental stability. In addition, you can find out how you can rid yourself of stretch marks.

Stretch marks are unsightly scars.

Stretch marks can be a severe problem for many women after pregnancy, Cradle Me Baby. They can hurt a woman’s self-image and confidence. However, some treatments can help fade stretch marks.

The first step to removing stretch marks is to determine their cause. A variety of factors have been linked to the development of stretch marks.

Stretch marks develop when the skin stretches too rapidly. This can occur during pregnancy or puberty. Weight gain is another common cause.

Some medical conditions can also lead to stretch marks, including Cushing’s syndrome. In addition, these conditions can result in the buildup of internal scar tissue.

Several medical procedures can be performed in the dermatologist’s office to help fade stretch marks. Procedural therapies include chemical peels, ultrasound, and microdermabrasion.

Surgical treatments can also be used to remove excess skin. In addition, nourishing creams can prevent stretch marks. Taking a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals can also improve the health of your skin.

Stretch marks are a sign of strength.

It is estimated that up to 90% of pregnant women will develop stretch marks. They appear in the thighs, hips, breasts, and abdomen.

Stretch marks are the result of the rapid stretching of the skin. The dermis, or inner layer of the skin, is home to collagen and elastin bundles. These tissues give the skin elasticity and strength.

In the case of pregnancy, stretch marks may develop during the final trimester as the baby grows. This is because the skin expands and contracts rapidly to accommodate the growing baby’s size. This can lead to the tearing of collagen bundles and the breakdown of elastin fibers.

Stretch marks may also occur during the growth of puberty. Some people may have a higher genetic risk of developing them. However, there is no proof that they cause any harm.

While there is no cure, there are treatments that may help reduce their appearance. For example, topical products that include tretinoin cream can help.

Stretch marks affect mental health.

One of the most common concerns for women after childbirth is body image. This can be related to having stretch marks. Stretch marks are a non-threatening cosmetic problem, but they can cause you to feel anxious and depressed.

Stretch marks are small, white, or silvery scars that appear on the skin. They occur when the skin stretches too quickly. It tears the supportive structures of the middle layer of the skin and leaves bands of different sizes across the skin.

Some people believe that stretch marks are painful or harmful. These are false assumptions. However, they can be uncomfortable for some pregnant and postpartum women.

Stretch marks are a natural part of growing. They also symbolize what your body went through to give you a baby. The more you know about stretch marks, the more likely you will accept them as usual.

Many women develop stretch marks during pregnancy, but not everyone. While a woman may have a genetic predisposition to stretch marks, other factors also play a role.

Laser therapy can remove stretch marks.

Laser therapy is an effective way to remove stretch marks. Several types of lasers have been developed for this purpose. Each one targets a different kind of stretch mark. The laser is applied to the affected area and may cause some irritation.

Two main lasers are used for this purpose: ablative and non-ablative. Ablative lasers remove the outer layer of the skin to stimulate collagen production. Non-ablative lasers boost the production of new cells. These lasers are more effective on more unique white marks than older reddish ones.

Before a stretch mark laser treatment, the doctor will numb the area with a topical anesthetic. This will take about an hour. In addition, the site must be moisturized. The skin may be swollen and tender for several days following the procedure.

A patient can expect the best results after three or five treatments. These sessions are spaced out about a month apart. The doctor will use a specialized handheld tool to press the affected area during the laser procedure gently.

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Regular pumping can help keep your septic system functioning effectively. Regular pumping can prevent problems with solids buildup, clogged pipes, or cracked or broken tanks. It can also extend the life of your septic system by eliminating septage. Generally, a well-maintained septic tank can last up to 30 years.


Pumping a septic tank involves a series of steps. First, a septic professional such as a specialist at septic 32tank solutions Citra FL will remove a layer of sludge that has settled or floated. Then, the operator will use a long hoe to stir the sludge.

Pumping septic tanks is usually recommended once every three to five years. The frequency may vary depending on the size of the tank and the number of people living in it. If your tank fills up more often, you should consider having it pumped.

Inlet and Outlet Pipes

Inlet and outlet pipes are a necessary part of a septic system. The inlet pipe carries wastewater into the septic tank, and the outlet pipe empties it into the drain field. The inlet pipe should be at least four inches in diameter. It should be watertight and slope 1/4 inch per foot toward the drain field. Cleanouts should be installed every fifty feet or 100 feet or anywhere the pipe curves sharply.

The inlet pipe to the tank should be four inches in diameter. Baffles should also protect it. This prevents floating scum from plugging the inlet pipe. In addition, it is essential to have a six-inch-diameter inspection pipe above the baffle. These pipes should extend to the ground surface and should be capped when not in use.

Distribution Box

A distribution box is an integral part of a septic tank solution. Typically constructed of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic, it has many holes to channel wastewater. Several of these outlets can be angled for different amounts of water flow. To install a distribution box, you must know the dimensions of your septic system. This information should be included in your site plan.

Distribution boxes do not require pumping like septic tanks but should be inspected regularly to avoid costly future repairs. They have typically located a short distance from the septic tank. Identifying the box is easy: look for a depression in the ground. The depressions should be five feet apart.

Septic Tank Siphon

While a working septic tank can remove up to 75% of solids, oil, grease, and other substances, the process does not kill pathogenic bacteria. The remaining traces will be removed from the effluent in an absorption field. Also, some soils cannot properly absorb the effluent from a septic tank. Septic tanks are watertight containers that hold a large amount of wastewater. They are usually made of concrete, fiberglass, or polyethylene. The tanks are connected to the inlet wastewater pipe and septic drain field through a T-pipe. The design usually consists of two chambers and a mid-sized outlet.


Septic tanks need filters to catch solid waste. If the septic tank filter is partially blocked, it will prevent effluent water from draining into the drain field. This can result in clogged sewage lines and a backed-up sewer system. In addition, a clogged septic tank can result in clogged sinks and toilets.

Installing filters is relatively easy if you work with professionals. You can follow a step-by-step guide to ensure the best results. Make sure to place the filter safely and wear gloves when working. After cleaning the septic tank filter, clean the spills around the area and wash your hands thoroughly. In addition to filtering the wastewater, filters reduce the environmental impact of a septic system. Filters also prevent suspended solids from getting into the leach field. By removing these solids, the filters in septic tanks can provide homeowners with peace of mind and reduce public health risks.

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Room to Grow have been creating dreamy children’s bedrooms since 1996. From single beds to bunk beds and everything in between. In this article there are some thoughts concerning parental behavior in front of sleeping children.

Previous studies have suggested that frequent fighting at home, including minor spats, can set a child up for anxiety and behavioral problems. Now two additional studies indicate babies can have their sleep patterns disrupted by arguing parents.

Psychologists at the University of Oregon recently conducted research to learn how and when these stressful experiences can leave their mark. Twenty-four mothers were asked to fill out a survey about the frequency of arguments in their home. The brain activity of their twenty-four infants was examined during sleep using functional MRI – a non-invasive imaging technology. Headphones played recordings of phrases read in neutral and angry voices. The brain scans revealed that the

infants whose parents often fought had a stronger neurological response on the computer generated brain map in brain areas associated with processing stress and emotion, than those infants from homes with less conflict. The response occurred even while the infants were asleep.

“We were interested in whether a common source of early stress in children’s lives — conflict between parents — is associated with how infants’ brains function,” stated study author Alice Graham of the University of Oregon. The findings suggest babies are aware of parental conflicts and that these conflicts may affect how the infants’ brains handle stress and emotion, Graham said.

Psychologists from the UK and U.S. compared the ‘quality’ of parental relationship with the sleeping patterns of more than 300 babies and found that the sleep disruption can manifest itself as early as eighteen months old for those from households where parental fighting occurs.

Professor Gordon Harold, from the UK’s University of Leicester, who worked on the study, said, “Regulated sleep is essential during infancy for healthy brain and physical development. How couples/parents relate to each other, specifically how they manage conflicts in their everyday lives is also recognized as having significant implications for children’s long-term emotional, behavioral, and academic development.”

All the children in the study were adopted at birth, so the researchers were able to pinpoint the exact influence of the children’s environment, rather than just looking at possible genetic similarities between parents and children.

Prof Harold added, “When parents and children are biologically related, any association between how parents behave and attributes of child behavior may be explained by common genetic factors (same genes underlying parent and child behavior).The present study rules this explanation out in that parents/caregivers and children are not genetically related, so common genetic factors cannot account for the associations noted.”

The study found marital instability when children were nine months old predicted increases in sleep problems at eighteen months, even after factoring in birth order, parents’ anxiety, and difficult infant temperament.

Anne Mannering of Oregon State University says that the study is the first of its kind focusing on the link between marital issues and infant sleep that eliminates the role of shared genes between parents and children. She said, “Our findings suggest that the association between marital instability and children’s subsequent sleep problems emerges earlier in development than has been demonstrated previously. Disrupted sleep patterns early in life have serious implications for children’s long-term development.”

Children not only need consistent, adequate sleep on a regular schedule, but they need the security and emotional stability that comes with a peace filled environment without parental arguing and disagreements. Remember, just because your infant is sleeping does not mean they are unaware of what is occurring around them.

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